Republic of Korea (Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한민국; Hanja: 大韩民国); language English: Republic of Korea / ROK) commonly known as South Korea, is a state in East Asia which includes the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. In the north, the Republic of Korea berbataskan North Korea, where they come together as a nation until 1948. Yellow Sea to the west, Japan is across the Sea of Japan (called the “East Sea” by the people of Korea) and Korea Strait is at the tenggara.Negara is known as Hanguk (한국; 韩国). by residents of South Korea and called Namchosŏn (남조선; 南朝鲜; “South Choson”) in North Korea. The capital of South Korea is Seoul (서울).
Archaeological discoveries show that the Korean Peninsula has been inhabited since the Paleolithic period Awal.Sejarah Korea starting from the formation of Gojoseon in 2333 BC. by Dan-gun. After the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Silla 668 AD, Korea became one under the Goryeo Dynasty and Joseon Dynasty to the end of the Han Empire Kingdom in 1910 because it was annexed by Japan. After liberalization and occupation by the Soviet Union and the United States at the end of World War II, Korea Regional eventually split into North Korea and South Korea.
Geography and climate
South Korea is a vast 99 274 km2, smaller than North Korea. State largely hilly topography and uneven. Mountains in the eastern region into upstream generally large rivers, such as the Han River and the river Naktong. While the western part consisting of low coastal plain muddy. In the western and southern regions contained many bays there are many good harbors such as Incheon, Yeosu, Gimhae and Busan.
South Korea has around 3,000 islands, mostly small and uninhabited island. Island – This island is spread from the west to the southern South Korea. Jeju Island is located about 100 kilometers in the southern part of South Korea is the largest island with an area of 1,845 km2. Mount Halla is the highest volcano as well as the highest point in South Korea which is located on the island of Jeju. The island is located in the most eastern region of South Korea is Uileungdo and Liancourt Rocks while Marado and Socotra Rock are the southernmost islands located in the territory of South Korea.
South Korea’s climate is influenced by the climate of mainland Asia and has 4 seasons. Summer in South Korea that began in June temperatures can reach 40 degrees Celsius (in the city of Daegu), which is marked by the arrival of the rainy season which falls in late July and August in all parts of the peninsula. While winter temperatures average temperatures can fall to minus 10 degrees Celsius so far in several provinces. South Korea is also vulnerable to attacks typhoons that hit during the summer and autumn. Recent years South Korea also frequently hit by storms that brought the yellow sand of the Gobi Desert in China that also hit Japan and the United States so far.
South Korea has a market economy and placing fifteenth sequence based on GDP. As one of the four East Asian Tigers, South Korea has achieved record export import dazzling, the value of exports is the eighth largest in the world. Meanwhile, the eleventh largest import value.
South Korea achieved economic success in the late 1980s when GDP growing than – average 8% per year (U.S. $ 2.7 billion) in 1962 to U.S. $ 230 billion in 1989. This amount is about – about 20 times that of North Korea and the same with the economy – the middle class in the European Union. Economic progress is known as the Miracle on the Han River.
Asian financial crisis of 1997 exposed weaknesses in South Korea’s development model, including debt ratio / equation large, large external borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. Growth fell about 6.6% in 1998, then recovered quickly to 10.8% in 1999 and 9.2% in 2000. Growth fell back to 3.3% in 2001 due to the world economic slowdown, falling exports, and the perception that the financial and corporate reforms needed not grow. Led by industry and construction, the South Korean economy began to rise in 2002 with growth of 5.8%. Number of people below the poverty line by 15% in 2003. Gini index showed improvement, from 35.8 points to 31.3 in 2007. The investment value amounting to 29.3% of GDP and ranks twenty-one.
In 2005, in addition to a leader in high-speed Internet access, memory semiconductors, flat-screen monitors and mobile phones, South Korea is in the first rank in shipbuilding, the third in the production of tires, fourth in synthetic fibers, fifth and sixth in the automotive in steel. The country also ranks thirty-six in terms of the unemployment rate, in the nineteenth Ease of Doing Business Index and thirty-one out of 179 countries in the Economic Freedom Index is based on 2010 data.
South Korea is considered to be stable in the 1960s, has now turned into a major industrial state in less than 40 years.
Export is engaged in semi-conductors, wireless telecommunications equipment, motor vehicles, computers, steel, ships and petrochemicals with major export partners PRC 21.5%, U.S. 10.9%, Japan 6.6% and Hong Kong 4.6%. South Korea imported plastic, and electronic equipment, oil, steel and organic chemicals from the PRC 17.7%, Japan 14%, U.S. 8.9%, Saudi Arabia 7.8%, UAE 4.4% and Australia 4.1%.
South Korea’s economy led by big conglomerates, known as chaebol. Some of the largest chaebol include: Samsung Electronics, POSCO, Hyundai Motor Company, KB Financial Group, Korea Electric Company, Samsung Life Insurance, Shinhan Financial Group, LG Electronics, Hyundai and LG Chem.
Transportation in South Korea consists of a train, bus, ferry and air travel. Path consists of a subway train that was in six cities: Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon and Incheon. Railway operator Korail provides rail services almost throughout major cities in South Korea.
South Korea has 103 airports with the Incheon International Airport as the largest airports. Incheon airport has been named as the best airport in the world by the Airport Council international air International.Bandar contained in South Korea, among others, are in Gimpo, Busan and Jeju.
The national airline Korean Air was established in 1962, serving 21.64 million passengers with 12.49 million international passengers. Asiana Airlines, established in 1988, serving domestic and international flights. Other airlines such as Hansung Airlines and Jeju Air domestic flights at a cheaper price.
Science and technology
The development of science and technology in South Korea initially not well developed due to the division of Korea and the Korean War occurred after the independence. Technological advance has started to be felt in 1960 when the dictator Park Chung-hee in which South Korea’s economic progress rapidly.
Robotics has become a major research and development in South Korea since 2003. In 2009, the government announced plans to build robot theme parks in Incheon and Masan with public and private funds. In 2005, the Institute of Science and Technology of South Korea developed a humanoid robot in the world capable of both running. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology also successfully developed the first Korean android, EveR-1 in May 2006.
Foreign relations and military
South Korea conduct diplomatic relations more than 188 countries. South Korea also joined the United Nations since 1991, together with the merger of North Korea. On January 1, 2007, South Korean Foreign Minister at the time, Ban Ki-moon UN Secretary-General officially be replacing Kofi Annan. In addition, South Korea also became a member of ASEAN partners stratergis Asean Plus 3 and is active in world economic forums such as the G-20, APEC and the East Asia Summit.
South Korea established close ties with the PRC, especially since South Korea severed ties with the Republic of China. The European Union is an important trading partner South Korea and a South Korea’s main export destination. Diplomatic relations with Japan were never formally recorded since World War II, but the Treaty of Basic Relations between Japan and South Korea in 1965 signed a major basic relations between the two countries. South Korea and Japan has disputes on the issue of Liancourt Rocks,  but administratively, the island is owned by South Korea for South Korean Coast Guard stationed on the island.
Invasion and tensions with North Korea have prompted South Korea to allocate 2.6% of GDP and 15% of government spending to finance the military and required all men for military service. Number of active troops South Korea ranks sixth largest in the world, second in the number of reserve troops and the eleventh in the affairs of the defense budget.
South Korea’s military forces consist of the Army (ROKA), the Navy (Rokn) and Marine Corps (ROKMC). The army is mostly concentrated in the Korean Demilitarized Zone border. The entire South Korean men are required to follow the draft constitution, generally for a period of two years.
Education in South Korea is divided into sections such as in general in other countries: play groups, elementary school, middle school, and high school / university. Based on the results of the 2006 study on the Program for International Student Assessment of the OECD, South Korea ranks first in problem solving, third in mathematics and eleventh in science. Technology in education in Korea is also developed throughout the entire mainland Korea to create a network of high-speed internet access in primary and secondary schools. Korean government through the Ministry of Education also provides scholarships for students from outside Korea to reach 100,000 students per year.
South Korea and North Korea have the same culture, but since the division of Korea in 1945, respectively – each country to develop different forms of contemporary cultural forms. Historically, Korean culture is influenced by the PRC, but Korea was able to develop a unique identity and distinct culture. Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of South Korea in promoting traditional culture in a modern form through financing and programs – educational programs.
Contemporary music, films, and television
Until the 1990s, trot and ballads are popular music that dominated South Korea. Joining the rap group Seo Taiji and Boys in 1992 marked a major change in the world of South Korean music known as K-Pop, this group mixes elements of popular musical genres such as rap, rock, and techno into their music.
Since the success of the film Shiri in 1999, Korean film began to gain appreciation internationally. Local films began to dominate the market, especially since the implementation of quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days in a year.