” Malaysia “

Malaysia is a federation that consists of thirteen states and three union territories in Southeast Asia with an area of ​​329 847 square kilometers. The capital is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya became the center of government fellowship. The population of these countries exceeds 27 million. The country is separated into two regions – West Malaysia and East Malaysia – by the Natuna Islands, Indonesia territory in the South China Sea. Malaysia borders Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, and the Philippines. The country is located near the equator and tropical climates. Malaysia’s head of state is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the government is headed by a Prime Minister. Malaysian governance model similar to the Westminster parliamentary system.

Malaysia as a country communion did not exist until 1963. Previously, a set of colonies established by Great Britain in the late 18th century, and the western half of modern Malaysia consists of several separate kingdoms. Collection of colonies was known as British Malaya until its dissolution in 1946, when the collection was reorganized as the Malayan Union. Due to widespread opposition, set it again reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and later gained independence on August 31, 1957.

UN General Assembly Resolution 1514 in the process of decolonization, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo or Sabah is now better known as the state turns into the formation of the new federation called Malaysia including the Federation of Malaya. and on August 9, 1965 Singapore was expelled from Malaysia and became an independent state called the Republic of Singapore. at the early years of the formation of the new federation, there is also opposition from military conflict with the Philippines and Indonesia.

The nations of Southeast Asia experienced an economic boom and underwent rapid development in the late 20th century. The rapid growth in the 1980s and 1990s, an average of 8% from 1991 to 1997, has transformed Malaysia into a newly industrialized country. Because Malaysia is one of three countries that control the Strait of Malacca, international trade plays an important role in its economy. At one time, Malaysia was once a producer of tin, rubber and palm oil in the world. The manufacturing industry has a large influence in the country’s economy. Malaysia is also regarded as one of the 18 states berkeanekaragaman greatest biodiversity in the world.

Malays form the largest part of the population of Malaysia. There are also community-Malaysian Chinese and Indian-Malaysian considerable. Malay language and Islam each into the official language of the state and religion.
Malaysia is a founding member of ASEAN and participates in many international organizations such as the UN. As a former British colony, Malaysia was also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malaysia is also a member of the D-8.

The name “Malaysia” was adopted in 1963 when the Federation of Malaya to grow Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak formed a federation called Malaysia. But the name itself is never confusing when used to refer to areas in Southeast Asia. A map published in 1914 in Chicago to show the name of Malaysia on certain areas of the archipelago. Politicians in the Philippines once wills naming their country as “Malaysia”, but Malaysia was the first to adopt the name of the Philippines in 1963 before any further action on the matter. Another name is never advisable to federation in 1963. Among them was Langkasuka (Langkasuka was an ancient kingdom located at the upper reaches of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium AD).

Retreat even further, an English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, in the fourth volume of the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia in 1850 proposed to name the islands of Indonesia as Melayunesia or Indunesia, although he prefers the latter.

Archaeological remnants discovered in West Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. The host has a distant ancestors in the Malay Peninsula, refer to the first settlement of Africa, more than 50,000 years ago. Senoi appear as a mixed group, with nearly half the maternal lineage of ancestors of the Semang and about half again Indochina. This is consistent with the notion that they represent the descendants of the ancient Austronesian speakers, the peasants, who brought the language and their technology to the southern part of the peninsula approximately 5,000 years ago and united with the natives. Human Proto-Malays more diverse, and although they show some connections with island Southeast Asia, some of which also have ancestors in Indochina from the time of Last Glacial Maximum, followed by an early-Holocene spread through the Malay Peninsula to the islands of Southeast Asia.

Malay Peninsula developed as a major trading center in Southeast Asia, due to the growing trade between China and India and other countries through the busy waterway. Ptolemy showed the Malay Peninsula on his early map with a label that means “Golden Chersonese”, the Straits of Malacca is written as “Sinus Sabaricus”. From the mid to late first millennium, most of the peninsula, as well as the archipelago was under the influence of Srivijaya.

Malay kingdom earliest recorded history of the city-port grew seaside made ​​in the 10th century. This includes Langkasuka and the Bujang Valley in Kedah, and also Eightfold and Ganges State in Silver and Pan Pan in Kelantan. Predicted everything is Hindu or Buddhist kingdom. Islam arrived in the 14th century in Terengganu.

There are many kingdoms of China and India in the 2nd century BC and 3rd-as many as 30 pieces according to Chinese sources. Kedah-known as Kedaram, Cheh-Cha (according to I-Ching), or Kataha, in ancient Pallava or Sanskrit-was on track invasion Indian traders and kings. Rajendra Chola, Tamil Emperor who allegedly was fashioned around town Gelanggi, Kedah made ​​subject to the 1025, but his successor, Vira Rajendra Chola, had to stifle rebellion Kedah to overcome the invaders. Arrival Chola managed to reduce the majesty of Srivijaya, which gives a great effect to Kedah and Pattani and even up to Ligor.

Buddhist kingdom, Ligor took control of Kedah shortly after, and the king, Chandrabhanu use this place as a base to attack Sri Lanka in the 11th century, an event that is carved in stone inscriptions in Nagapattinum in Tamil Nadu and in the stories of the people of Sri Lanka, the Mahavamsa. During the first millennium, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted Hinduism and Buddhism and the use of the Sanskrit language until they turn to Islam.

There are reports of other areas older than Kedah-the ancient kingdom of Gangga State for example, around Eightfold in Perak, Malaysia pushing history further back. If that was not enough, a Tamil poem, Pattinapillai, from the 2nd century AD, describes Kadaram goods piled in the streets of the Chola capital. A Sanskrit drama from the 7th century, Kaumudhimahotsva, referring to Kedah as Kataha-villages. Agnipurana also mentions an area known you-Kataha with its one describing a mountain peak, which is believed by scholars as Gunung Jerai. The stories of Katasaritasagaram describe the elegance of life in Kataha.

At the beginning of the 15th century, Melaka Sultanate was established under a dynasty founded by Parameswara, a prince from Palembang, Indonesia, in the Srivijaya empire. Conquest forced him and his supporters fled from Palembang. Parameswara sailed to Temasek to escape persecution and came under the protection of Temagi, a ruler of Pattani Malay appointed by the King of Siam as Regent of Temasek. A few days later, Parameswara killed Temagi and appointed himself regent. Approximately five years later, he left Temasek because of the threat of Siam. During this period, Temasek was also attacked by a Javanese fleet from Majapahit.

He then headed north to found a new settlement. In Muar, Parameswara founded the kingdom of new wills in Komodo Rot or at City Poor. Knowing the Muar location was not suitable, he continued on his way north. Along the way, he is reported to have visited Sening Ujong (ancient name for modern river Ujong) before reaching a fishing village at the mouth Bertam River (ancient name for modern Melaka River). Where it gradually evolved into the present location of Melaka. According to the History of Malay, that’s where he saw the deer outwit a dog while sheltering under a tree Melaka. He took what he saw as a good sign and then he founded a kingdom called Melaka, then he build and improve facilities for trading purposes.

Parameswara conversion to Islam is not clear. According to a theory by Sabri Zain, Parameswara became a Muslim when he married a Princess of Pasai Ocean and her titles include stylized Persian “shah”, calling himself Iskandar Shah. There are also references that indicate that some members of the ruling class and the merchant community residing in Malacca were already Muslims. Chinese chronicles mention that in 1414, the son of the first ruler of Malacca visited Ming to inform them that his father had died. Son of Parameswara officially recognized as the second ruler of Melaka by a Chinese Emperor and styled Raja Sri Rama vikarma, Raja Parameswara of Temasik and Melaka and he was known as the Muslim leader Sultan Sri Iskandar Zulkarnain Shah or Sultan Megat Iskandar Shah, and he took control of Malacca from 1414 to 1424 . This kingdom controlled the region that is now called the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand (Pattani, and the east coast of Sumatra. Kingdom lasted for more than a century, and in that period Islam spread throughout the archipelago. Melaka, as an important trading port, located almost in the middle of China and India’s trade routes.
In 1511, Melaka was conquered by Portugal, which established a colony there; then ended the Melaka Sultanate. However, the last Sultan fled to Kampar, Riau, Sumatra and died there. Sons of the last Sultan of Melaka established two sultanates elsewhere in the peninsula & mdash; Sultanate of Perak to the north, and the Sultanate of Johor (originally a continuation of ancient Melaka sultanate) to the south. After the fall of Malacca, three nations struggled to master the Malacca Strait: the Portuguese (in Melaka), the Sultanate of Johor, and the Sultanate of Aceh. This conflict lasted until 1641, when the Dutch (allied to the Sultanate of Johor) to capture Melaka.

The kingdom is a continuation of the old Malacca sultanate, but now known as the Sultanate of Johor, which still exist today. After the fall of Malacca, three nations struggled for the control of Malacca Strait: the Portuguese (in Malacca), the Sultanate of Johor, and the Sultanate of Aceh, and the war ended in 1641, when the Dutch (allied to the Sultanate of Johor) seized Malacca . 

 

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By Agnes Chang

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