” Malaysia “

Political developments malaysia

Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia with an area of ​​329 758 km2 and a population in 2007 amounted to 27.17 million people. Of the total population in 2007, 60% are ethnic Malay Bumiputera, 26% ethnic Chinese, 8% ethnic Indians, 5% other ethnic bumiputera, and 1% other ethnic groups such as Arabic, Sinhalese, Eurasian and European.

In the Malaysian constitution, Malays are Malaysian citizens who practice Malay customs, use Bahasa Malaysia, and Muslim. Approximately 25% of Malaysia’s population are Chinese, and 7% are made up India. Nearly 85% of the races in Malaysia is India’s Tamil community. More than half the population of Sarawak and Sabah 66% of the population consists of non-Malay natives. Influx of other races to some extent reduce the percentage of indigenous population in the two states. In addition, Malaysia also has a population that originated rather than Europe and the Middle East. Malaysia’s population density is not distributed evenly, with 17 million of the 25 million people living in Peninsular Malaysia Malaysia.

Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy which parliamentary democracies, and the prime minister and the prime minister elected by the people through elections that took place regularly every five years. YDPA currently the 12th since independence Malaysia on August 31, 1957.

When newly independent Malaysia consists of 11 states P1 and is called Guild Tanah Melayu (Federation of Malaya). Then in 1963 the state of Sarawak and Sabah joined the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia is known as a multi-ethnic state and the rich cultural heritage that has approximately 30 groups etnis.2 Less than 8 percent of the population were below the poverty line before the 1997 economic crisis; literacy rate above 85 percent and their peoples life expectancy par with developed countries. Malaysia has a bicameral parliamentary system, the People’s Council and the Council of State. Board members shall be elected by popular vote, while the members of the Council of State appointed by the states or directly appointed by YDPA based on input from the prime minister.

Malayan Union in 1946

Malayan Union was introduced by the Labour Party a few months after the British reoccupied Malaya. It said the implementation of the Malayan Union in April 1946 at the Tanah Melayu nationalism has been inspiring local people especially the Malays.

They feel the customs and traditions that brought Malayan union is contrary to the nation Malaysia, Malayan Union drastically changed the level of the countries of the Malay lands to the British protectorate direct British colony, removing the privileges of the Malays as a populist peribumi by introducing the concept of ‘jus soli ‘the citizenship granted to all foreigners who were born in the Malay and those aged 18 years or older and have lived for 10 of the 15 years prior to February 15, 1942, as well as removing the sovereignty of the Malay kings. Malay people feel threatened by their migrants. China and India into the Malay people in the country very easily. This situation is the most important cause chaos Malays losing political power.

This has led to increasing conflict among the officials and Malay nobility like Dato Onn Jaafar, Dr Burhanuddin Helmi and a few more people are educated Malays. They feel insulted by the arrogant attitude of the UK and act as they pleased in meengemukakan reform. Opposition intensified after role as envoy Malay Malay newspapers, criticizing the State Assembly and Warta and explain the ugliness Malayan Union.

This condition is compounded by the recognition of British officials who have retired like Frank Swettanham, George Maxwell, and Winstedt through their writing in British newspapers which expressed their resentment against British injustice ways to make the constitutional amendment. But the Malays fight in a more orderly and collective nature, including in the form of a protest demonstration by the Kelantan Malay Persetiaan Association in 1945 and 1946 in Kedah and Johor. Besides meeting held on 11 March 1946 is the first Malay Congress incorporates 41 organizations termasuklah PKMM Malay and Malay Congress agreed to form a whole Tanah Melayu. He aims to fight the Malayan Union and unite the Malays in a strong body.

At that time Congress has yet to have a social and economic plans are mature, otherwise just want to restore the sovereignty of the Malay kings and the rights of the Malays as the indigenous. It has also been stated that the agreement was not valid because Michael excluded the Malay princes and communities. Through this Congress, has given birth to the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) on 11 May 1946 to preserve the interests of the Malays. Where Dato Onn Jaafar as the main leader and first. May 1946 is the biggest protests the Malays against the British. Finally constitutional amendment that gave birth to the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Birth of Political Parties Between the Years 1946-1965

Party United Malays (UMNO) Year 1946

The birth was the result of a merger UMNO Malay organizations with different philosophies and opinions but agreed to take joint action to advance and fight the invaders of the Malays. Malay people come together to form UMNO as a bulwark against the threat of the rights of the Malays huh By Malayan Union in 1946. UMNO establishment on May 11, 1946, with Dato ‘Onn bin Ja’far as the first leader who can be said to be the movement of the Malays in Malaya to prevent them from sinking under the political and economic developments are so swift and benefit the families of the other more advanced.
UMNO is the first struggle against the Malayan Union. Through the newspapers and as expected the sound to be known by the Malay Malayan Union. UMNO leaders managed to persuade the Sultan not to attend the ceremony melayu appointment Malayan Union Governor Edward Gent ie, here clearly show the lack sukaan indigenous people against the Malayan Union.

Semalaysia Islamic Party (PAS) 1951

The emergence of PAS in the political history of the land malaysia began August 23, 1951 when the scholars who convened in Kuala Lumpur agreed to establish a union called the United Ulamak Se-Malaya. Name of unity is then converted into Se-Malaya Islamic Union (PAS) 24 November 1951, in a conference scholars Malaya. That bit of the early history of PAS which was founded by the scholars who later evolved into a political organization-mission critical in Himalayan countries.
Emergence of PAS is associated effects occurred in some earlier Islamic movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Masjumi in Indonesia and the Jamaat Islami in Pakistan. The third influence has entered into Tanah Melayu through the scholars who studied in Egypt, Mecca, India and Indonesia. Awareness is the beginning of emerging scholars or Muslims need an organization or agency that can represent them in all aspects of life, especially in conditions of Tanah Melayu being colonized by the British. The existence of this ksedaran then generate Majlis Top Religion Malaya (EYE) in 1947 followed by the Hizbul Muslimin in 1948.

PAS became an Islamic political organization fighting for independence through a democratic foundation. The scholars reject the forms of struggle are founded on an ideology of human creation is brought in by the invaders. Since then, PAS appears as an Islamic political organization fighting for independence of the country, then join to vote. PAS also use various channels to deliver the message preaching including forming a political partnership with the non-Muslims since 1953. Under the leadership Tuan Guru Haji Ahmad Fuad Hassan and Dr Abbas Haji Alias, PAS can speak about the freedom that Islamic law be enforced. PAS refused citizenship jus soli adverse indigenous and urged PAS Islamic state independent basis.

Democratic Action Party (DAP) in 1965

The party was officially registered six months later on March 18, 1966 as a social democratic party. DAP is more favored by the Chinese and received a small part of the India. DAP is more dominated by the Chinese and was well received by the Chinese in the cities. DAP is famous for the concept of “Malaysian Malaysia” (Malaysian for all the people of Malaysia). The party is committed to the struggle for a Malaysian Malaysia that is free, democratic socialism is, based on the principles of human rights, equality, social and economic justice, and democratic institutions based parlimen. Dap is not partial to one of the world’s great power influence whether Western or Eastern bloc block.

Federation of Malaya in 1948

Results of the consultation committee composed work government representatives, Sultans and UMNO, succeeded in forming a new constitution in 1948 that the Federation of Malaya. provisions to be tightened citizenship Malay privileges and rights of the Malays as the natives recognized. In general, the federal provide opportunities for local children to take control of the country through the office as the Minister, Secretary Local Government and others, to ensure that they can lead independent state. From the geopolitical aspects of the country for the first time all Tanah Melayu placed in a single administration. But it is also delicate England has successfully opened populist on other clans.
Tanah Melayu was part of Sabah, Sarawak, Singapore and Brunei. Although bagaiamanapun Brunei subsequently withdrawn for reasons of its own. on July 9, 1963 an important agreement was signed in Malborough House, London, the Commonwealth Transportation Office. Agreement Establishing the Malaysian Federation has been signed by the UK Government, the Federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore.

This agreement, is the continuation of the Agreements that have been held previously, and is the most rumityang Agreements nearly deadlocked and eventually be resolved.

Ceremony that ended British colonial history for hundreds of years in Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak have five copies signed by the representatives of the governments involved. The British government has been represented by Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Encik Ducan Sandys and Lord Landsdowne. Government of the Federation of Malaya also been represented by Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, Tun Abdul Razak, Mr Tan Siew Sin, Datuk VT Sambanthan, Datuk Ong Yoke Lin and Dr. Lim Swee Aun. Sabah was represented by Datuk Mustapha bin Datu Harun, Mr. Donald A. Stephen, Encik W.K.H. Jones, Encik Khoo Siak Chiew, Encik W.S. Holley and Encik G.D. Sundang. Representatives from Sarawak state also comprises Encik than PEH Pike, Tomonggong Jugah, Bandar Datuk Abang Haji Mustapha, Encik Beng Siew Ling and Datuk Abang Haji Openg. While Singapore has been represented by Encik Encik Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Keng Swee.

Singapore Split From Malaysia

In 1965, Singapore separated from the Federation of Malaysia. Declaration on the separation was made by YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, the Prime Minister of Malaysia at the People’s Council. Measures the separation of Singapore from Malaysia considered the best because it is the only way out for the sake of unity and avoid a clash between residents and malaysia singapur, and the occurrence of economic stability and to avoid political conflict between the Government of Malaysia are controlled by the Alliance Party with the People’s Action Party Singapore’s ruling. Action is performed after the separation agreement is reached between the two sides.

YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman also said the other causes of this separation because of the attitude of half Singapore’s political leaders who championed the concept of ‘Malaysian Malaysia’, as well as denying the existence of the Malay Sultanate institutions, against the privileges the rights of the Malays and natives as well as the lack of equality opinions in increasing and promoting the basics of trading, tax and industrial division. However, the separation of Singapore from Malaysia was made with the understanding that Malaysia and Singapore will continue to cooperate in the fields of defense, business and trade.

The agreement has been drawn up and signed by both parties. In a separation agreement between the two countries are Malaysia was represented by YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, Tun Abdul Razak, Dato ‘Dr. Ismail b. Abdurrahman, Tan Siew Sin and Dato ‘V.T. Sambanthan. While Singapore was represented by Eneik Lee Kuan Yew, Dr. Toh Chin Chye, Dr. Goh Keng Swee, Rajaratnam and Eneik Sa Encik Othman Wok.

Separation of Singapore from Malaysia are automatically made citizens of Singapore is no longer a Malaysian citizen. consequently 2 Senators and 15 members of the Parliament of Singapore is no longer a member of Parliament of Malaysia. In addition, all people including members of armed forces, police, courts and others who used to be the Malaysian Government staff, starting today they returned to Singapore Government staff. But the Malaysian government will continue to adhere to the agreements on water supplies that have been made between the Government of the Kingdom of Johor Singapore. Although it has been split, the Malaysian Government still recognizes Singapore as an independent and sovereign country and will always work and be friends with him.

Political Hegemony Malaysia

It was the custom for the king or local government asked the people to be loyal to them. This means that the king can not be challenged or resisted because the action was regarded as an act which is against tradition. The result appears to be a doctrine of fear and society and always humble himself before the king. With this power as king of the easier expanding its grip in a variety of fields such as business sector, etc.. Political power that gives them opportunity to be involved in the control of the economic sector and the economic sector to strengthen their political position anyway.

The king honored not only demanding but they have used their position to reap the opportunities of wealth in the economy and other sectors. Tried to apply the traditional elements of the practice of democracy in Malaysia. But there is no doubt that democracy is applied mixed with traditional backgrounds such as indigenous communities and religious traditions as well as the handle to the main core.

Without realizing the government has sought to collect power and are in a safe position and managed to steer public opinion to accept their dominant position without problems. Very clear political hegemony in the political system of the Malaysian government through the Barisan Nasional (BN) are in favor by UMNO as its main force Malaysia’s ruling elite. BN containing Malay elites no longer pay attention to NGOs, the opposition ranks, the media, and the judiciary are more voices to fight modern democracy.

Accordingly, all forms of organizations, police, army, judiciary, etc which are used in fully by the BN government before and after the elections to strengthen and preserve the interests of the class. Also, laws such as the Official Secrets Act (OSA), the State Security Act (ISA), Printing Act is used by the government to control and punish the Malaysian political opponents of the government. Malaysia’s main political party, Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (UMNO), has held sway with the party – the other party since Malaysia’s independence in 1957. UMNO is getting big when a BN of National Front. Barisan Nasional has three important components – Umno, MCA (Malaysian Chinese Pertubuhan) and MIC (Malaysian Indian Congress).

Turns BN especially elite Malay elite has managed to dominate the system of government in Malaysia so that the Malaysian electoral system, their victory was secured in the public option. For example, UMNO is the dominant party is represented and supported by Malay elites appointed to dominate key institutions such as the state police, the army, the courts, the legislature, and so on. With the dominance of the Malay elites, enabling them to control the movement of the existing government system to ensure the system is fit trend established their political culture.

On July 27, 1955, the first elections run in history after decades colonized. Major Parties Engagement Party is competing, Countrymen Malay Parti Islam (PAS), Parti State, the Labour Party and the People’s Progressive Party. The elections have been held with the cooperation of the colonial British. Engagement Party has placed candidates for 52 seats overall. In that election engagement party won 51 of 52 seats contested.

Engagement Party victory UMNO-MCA has proven leadership and cooperation between the various people who helped fight for a comprehensive manifesto to the people of Tanah Melayu. The basics are set by Engagement is a wise step in which Western hegemony has passed unnoticed by the local community. Basics UMNO championed commitments is considered very ‘generous’ to help the local community. Behind the properties ‘generous’, they expect support and loyalty of the people to ensure the success of the policy is made.

At the time of the last election, the election is held in 1964,1974,1978,1982,1986,1995 and 2004 was the golden age era Barisan Nasional fully backed by UMNO. In the 1964 elections (elections 3rd) to win the National ranks 74 out of 104 Parliamentary seats or 85 percent in 1964. In the 1974 general election, BN got 87 percent is a big win. Followed, with the 1978 election victory of BN as many as 130 seats out of 154 seats in the House of Representatives that is less than the achievement of the five seats in the 1974 elections. In the elections to the 6th (1982), BN got the win about 132 seats out of 154 seats in the House of Representatives and is 85.7 percent of the total seats, and is the second highest achievement since independence when.

Whereas in the general election, while in the 7th (1986) BN got the win 148 seats out of 177 seats in the House of Representatives (83.6%) there was a slight decrease of 2.4 percent compared to last umuma choice. But BN managed to retain its majority in parliament and strive to maintain his grip on the post of Prime Minister and form a government. On election 9th 1995, BN retain a majority in parliament by winning 162 seats out of 192 seats in the House of Representatives, which is 84.4 per cent and an increase of 19.6 percent compared to the last election. Election 2004 is a general election to the 11th, BN achieve voice rising as much as 63.9. BN won 198 seats out of 219 seats in the assembly of the people. This is a great kemenagan election since 1978.

UMNO Malays as seen by the spacecraft and the fate of the Malay struggle container. In addition, as a milestone BN and UMNO government has the political power to rule the country. People are too dependent on UMNO Malays to defend their fate. If they take the position of Malay political parties who are not involved in the government does not have the political domination. Political power is what is the basis for power factor UMNO. Many people are reluctant to leave the Malay party UMNO not because it is really fighting for the fate of the Malays, but they look like a “gold mine” that promises luxury and power to them and fought through BN party without knowing the meaning of defeat.

Current position of hegemony BN win big in elections (years 1964,1974,1978, 1982, 1986, 1995 and 2004) have confirmed the BN gained the loyalty and support that is second to none of the people under their rule. The government did not forget to post to their loyal supporters with a variety of forms such as job gains in government, name, and rank. Reversionary who oppose the Prime Minister or government leaders will be labeled as rebellious, defectors, opposition, anti-government, a traitor and a variety of other negative degrees.

Nationalist Party And Islam Malaysia

In the context of Malaysia, Malays and Islam is often seen as one component of which is very difficult to separate. When certain individuals belonging to ethnic Malays then directly be identified Muslims. In more extreme conditions, in addition to ethnic Malays who embrace Islam will be said “in Malay” and will leave the identity of ethnic origin

them. This view is reinforced by the Constitution of the Federation said, “Malay means a person who embraced Islam, Fluent speaking Malay, according to Malay custom”.

In Malaysian politics, the Malays and Islam, often juxtaposed together. He made as the party’s ideology. Not infrequently some people considered that this is wrong because generally there is a clear difference between the Malays and Islam. Malays are an ethnic and ethnic-based struggles labeled as nationalism.

In the context of Malaysian politics, UMNO and PAS is seen as the two largest parties that supported the ideology of Malay-Muslims in their political struggle. Both parties are competing in the elections in order to maintain their respective ideologies. UMNO is seen fighting for Malay nationalism. For PAS too, which championed ideology is Islam. However, under certain conditions, PAS also be seen as if the Malays are more concerned with their political actions. This leads to the perception of PAS is almost the same as the interests of the UMNO Malays and at the same time denied the benefit of other ethnicities.

This perception appears on the suggestion that PAS and UMNO to form the idea of ​​’to unite them’ for the welfare of the people. This idea got no disutujui by PAS internal group itself, but welcomed with open arms by the UMNO party. So today, the idea of ​​uniting them is still uncertain, but the two sides have never forgotten this.

Malaysia Economic Policy

After the racial riots of May 13, 1969, the controversial New Economic Policy was issued by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak. Malaysia’s new economic policy of maintaining the balance of ethno-political, and develop regulations that uniquely combines economic growth and political rules that benefit the bumiputera (a group consisting of Malays and the natives) and Malaysian nationals who embraced Islam.

Between the late 1980s and early 1990s, Malaysia experienced rapid economic growth under the leadership of Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad, the fourth prime minister of Malaysia. In this period saw a shift from an economy based on agriculture to manufacturing and industry in the field of computer and consumer electronics goods.

In the late 1990s, Malaysia was shaken by the Asian financial crisis. Opposition to some aspects of the system that was put down by the government. Opposition from the socialist and reformist to the party advocating the establishment of an Islamic state. In 2003, Dr. Mahathir, the longest-serving prime minister in Malaysia, resigned and handed over to the office of Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. The new government advocated a moderate view of Islam state that is defined by Islam Hadhari.

Malaysia is a modest-income country, transformed from a producer of raw materials such as latex, lead ore, and so on. In 1971, a multisector country through the New Economic Policy. Basically, Malaysia’s growth depends on exports of electronics such as computer chips and so on. As a result, Malaysia felt the intense pressure during the economic crisis in 1998 and the slump in the information technology sector in 2001. KDNK in 2001 only increased by 0.3% due to a reduction of 11% in export numbers but large fiscal stimulus packages have reduced the impact.

Malaysia has a stable macroeconomic elements (where the rate of inflation and the unemployment rate remains below 3%), foreign exchange deposits are healthy, and low foreign debt. This enables Malaysia to not experience the same crisis as the Asian financial crisis in 1997. However, the long-term prospects look poor due to the lack of change in the legal sector, particularly sectors that deal with corporate debt is high and competitive. In addition to oil palm sap and many in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are also rich in natural resources such as timber logs, petroleum and natural gas.

Women In World Politics Malaysia

In 2002, Malaysia has three female characters who hold ministerial posts: Minister of Women’s Affairs and Family Development, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and the Minister of Welfare and National Unity. In addition, there are many women who hold high positions in government, including the deputy ministers, political secretaries, diplomats, senior government officials, anggotaanggota assembly states, and the senators in the State Council.

However, the presence of women in the decision-making process in Malaysia is still far from enough. Many women leaders talk about gender equality in this context. At this time, women still lack representation in the political institutions in Malaysia.

According Rashila and Saliha there are at least five common factors that become obstacles for active participation of Malaysian women in politics. They classify these factors as social discrimination against women’s role in public life, time constraints caused by the demands of career and household, and cultural arguments stating that religious place for women is in the home, structural constraints within each political party which does not allow women beyond a certain level of political careers, as well as the lack of support resources, either in the form of organizational support, influence, and money. Contrary to common misconceptions, there is a real understanding of Islamic concepts that allow people to appreciate the possibilities in the direction of “women’s liberation” based on the content of religious teachings. In many cases, religion has been to empower and enable women to reach and realize their full potential with men. The experience of women in Malaysia at the end of the turn of the last century proves this.

Constraints / Problems Faced Malaysian Women in Parliament

The many problems faced by women who entered politics in Malaysia and made a lot of them are afraid to involve themselves in politics.

The double burden

Women themselves are much less strict and often forced to bear a double burden, which must be very clever balance between domestic duties with career issues, so many of whom are tangled deep trouble, unless they are really strong and tough to reach ambition

Political party

Character and features of the political parties which pose many obstacles for women’s involvement in politics. Generally typically the ruling parties and established will maintain a conservative stance and do not want to see and adjust to the radical changes that menggejolak currents in society. Only alternative political parties or opposition parties are willing to provide dynamic opportunities and greater opportunities for women. Also, many political parties lack the resources to conduct training and education, even for members of the women, due to the pressures imposed by the authorities.

Hostile environment towards women

It’s sad to see many members of parliament and legislature states that women are still sexually abused, either in the form or irrelevant comments offensive burst in the sessions of parliament and meetings the representative councils. Another factor that causes women reluctant to plunge into the world of politics is the misguided notion that politics is a world of men, they are also often scared by her jet hypocrisy and dirty games typical politics.

Malaysian politics

In simple terms we can explain a little about the political system of Malaysia, the country is a constitutional monarchy. Malaysia is headed by a king who was commonly known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agung elected by and from the nine sovereign states-led Malaysian state sultan to serve for five years in rotation. The system is based on Westminster because Malaysia is a former United Kingdom colonies. More power is held by the executive branch than the judiciary. Regular elections are held every 5 years.

Executive power is determined by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. Under the Constitution of Malaysia, the Prime Minister must be a member of the People’s Council, which in the opinion of the Yang di-Pertuan Agung, received majority support in parliament. The cabinet is chosen from members of parliament or the People’s Council of the State Council.

Parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Council of State. The State Council has 70 senators (the call given to members of the State Council). The selection of its members can be divided in two:
1). 26 members elected by the Council of State as the representative Invitation 13 states (each state is represented by two members).

2). 44 members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister, including two members of Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, and one member each from Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan and Putrajaya. House of Representatives has 222 members, and each member represents a constituency. They were selected on the basis of the support of many parties through elections. Each member of the People’s Council hold office for five years, and after that a new election be held. Judicial power be shared between the government and the state government fellowship. Political power in Malaysia is very important to fight for the issues and rights. Therefore power plays a very important role in making a change.

By Agnes Chang

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